THE LAST WEEK:
ATONEMENT AND RESURRECTION OF
JESUS CHRIST

by Richard D. Kirkham

HOW DO WE SET THE DATE? --  Many biblical scholars disagree on the dating of Christ's birth, life, and death.  Elder Bruce R. McConkie in his 4 volume work, The Mortal Messiah places the death of Christ in the year 30 A.D. of the Julian * Calendar or the year 3790 of the Hebrew calendar. That year the Passover began on Thursday evening. Under the Law of Moses, Passover always falls on the 14th of Nisan (or Abib as it was called in Moses time).  Using this starting point we can calculate the events of the last week of Christ's life.

THREE 'DAYS' IN THE TOMB? -- According to Jewish customs for reckoning time, any part of a day (even 1 hour) constitutes 'a day'. The logic is similar to the way we consider a birthday to occur on a given day even if the child is born 1 minute before midnight ends that day.  Thus Jesus, being entombed briefly on Friday, is by Jewish thinking, to have been in the grave that day and it is counted as the first day of his entombment.  Saturday (Sabbath) becomes day 2 and is a full 24 hours. Then Sunday constitutes the 3rd day of His laying in the tomb even though He resurrects in the early hours of Sunday morning.  Thus three days passed even though it was likely less than 30 hours of actual time.  The scriptures do say three days, not 72 hours.

Other scholars will argue that the term '3 days' means nothing more nor less than 72 hours and fix the death of Christ on Thursday for that reason.  It is likely the debate will rage on amongst the scholars.  And in the end it will not materially change the facts that Jesus died and Jesus resurrected, so the purpose of this study is not to offer a conclusive argument one way or the other but rather to provide a study guideline of the events of the final week.  I have chosen to use Friday afternoon as the time and day of his death.

WHEN DOES THE DAY BEGIN? --  Jewish customs also state that a day begins at Sunset, not at Midnight as is reckoned amongst western cultures.   Leviticus clearly states, 'In the fourteenth day of the first month (Nisan) at even (meaning 'evening') is the Lord's Passover.'  (Leviticus 23:5)  Taking that literally, we set the date of Thursday as the 14th of Nisan, and at evening passover would begin. Evening also would trigger the beginning of the 15th day of Nissan, at least as Jews would see it.


NISAN, 3790 - APRIL, 30 A.D.


Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
2nd week of the month of Nisan 6th day before Passover 5th day before Passover 4th day before Passover 3 days before Passover 2 days before Passover Day before Passover (passover begins at Sunset) PASSOVER Day &
Eve of the Feast of Unleavened Bread
Hebrew date 9 Nisan, 3790 10 Nisan, 3790 11 Nisan, 3790 12 Nisan, 3790 13 Nisan, 3790 14 Nisan, 3790 15 Nisan, 3790
Julian Date April 1, 30 A.D. April 2, 30 A.D.. April 3, 30 A.D. April 4, 30 A.D. April 5, 30 A.D. April 6, 30 A.D.. April 7, 30 A.D.
Main Events Jesus spends the Sabbath in Bethany: Supper at Mary & Martha's
Jesus anointed by Mary
Judas' protest
People gather to Jesus & Lazarus
TRIUMPHAL ENTRY
Prophecy fulfilled
Pharisees disapprove
Jesus weeps over Jerusalem.
Greeks wish to see Jesus
Discourse: Jesus sent by the Father
Moneychangers cast out
fig tree cursed, withers
priests challenge Jesus authority
Parables: two sons, wicked Husbandman, wedding of a king's son
(day change to Tuesday not recorded in scripture) 
Tribute to Caesar
Marriage/ resurrection question: Sadducees
Great commandment question: Pharisees
Widow's mite
Denunciation of Hypocrisy
Jesus leaves temple forever
Jesus' lament over Jerusalem.
Signs of 2nd coming (Matt 24 & 25)
Parable: talents, sheep & goats
Jesus prophecy of Passover crucifixion
Conspiracy at Caiaphas' palace
Feast with Simon the Pharisee
Jesus Anointed by a woman
Judas' conspiracy to betray Jesus
Peter & John sent to secure lamb and room 
for passover supper
PASSOVER BEGINS AT SUNSET 
*  For the full account SEE BELOW

Last Supper
Gethsemane
Trials
Crucifixion
Death
Burial
Constitutes 1st day in the tomb


Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
3rd week of the month of Nisan Sabbath after Passover
1st day of Unleavened Bread
Morning After Sabbath after Passover
2nd Day of Unleavened Bread
3th Day of Unleavened Bread 4th Day of Unleavened Bread 5th Day of Unleavened Bread 6th Day of Unleavened Bread 7th or Last Day of Unleavened Bread
Hebrew date 16 Nisan, 3790 17 Nisan, 3790 18 Nisan, 3790 19 Nisan, 3790 20 Nisan, 3790 21 Nisan, 3790 22 Nisan, 3790
Julian Date April 8, 30 A.D. April 9, 30 A.D. April 10, 30 A.D.  April 11, 30 A.D. April 12, 30 A.D.. April 13, 30 A.D. April 14, 30 A.D.
Main Events Christ in 
the World of Spirits
2nd day in the tomb
3rd day in the tomb
earthquake
RESURRECTION DAY
Celebration of First Fruits




offering by fire (Lev. 23:8) 

 
 
* EVENTS 14 & 15 NISAN 3790

A HARMONIZED RENDITION OF THE EVENTS OF
THE LAST DAY OF THE LIFE OF CHRIST

FRIDAY (Remember, the Passover begins at Sunset on the 14th of Nissan (See Leviticus 22:5) 

 1.  John 18:2-3 THE BETRAYAL BY JUDAS
 2.  Matthew 26:50a,48-49
 3.  Luke 22:48
 4.  John 18:4-9
 5.  Luke 22:49  PETER REBUKED FOR TRYING TO STOP THE ARREST
 6.  John 18:10
 7.  Luke 22:51
 8.  Matthew 26:52-54
 9.  Luke 22:52-53
10.  John 18:12     THE ARREST, APOSTLES FLEE
11.  Matthew 26:56
12.  Mark 14:51-52
13.  John 18:13-16,18 JESUS TAKEN TO THE PALACE OF ANNAS AND CAIAPHAS
14.  (Luke 22:55)
15.  John 18:19-24 FIRST PRETRIAL BY ANNAS
16.  Mark 14:55-64 SECOND PRETRIAL BY CAIAPHAS AND 'THE COUNCIL'
17.  Luke 22:63-65 MOCKING OF JESUS AT CAIAPHAS' PALACE
18.  Matthew 26:69-75 PETER DENIES KNOWING JESUS

DAWN, OR SUNRISE (APPROXIMATELY 6 AM)
AFTER SUNRISE AND MORNING SACRIFICE IN THE TEMPLE

19.  Luke 22:66-71 FORMAL TRAIL BY SANHEDRIN
20.  Matthew 27:3-10 JUDAS COMMITS SUICIDE

THE FIRST HOUR (APPROXIMATELY 7 AM)

21.  John 18:28-32 FIRST APPEARANCE BEFORE PILATE
22.  Luke 23:2
23.  John 18:33-38
24.  Mark 15:3-5
25.  Luke 23:5-7
26.  Luke 23:8-12 JESUS BEFORE HEROD

THE SECOND HOUR (APPROXIMATELY 8 AM )

27.  Luke 23:13-17 SECOND APPEARANCE BEFORE PILATE
28.  Mark 15:7-8
29.  Matthew 27:17-21
30.  Mark 15:12
31.  Luke 23:21-22
32.  Matthew 27:27-30 SCOURGING AND MOCKING OF JESUS
33.  John 19:4-15 PILATE PLEADS FOR JESUS
34.  Matthew 27:24-26 PILATE RELEASES BARABBAS AND DELIVERS JESUS TO BE CRUCIFIED

THE THIRD HOUR (MARK 15:25) (APPROXIMATELY 9 AM)


35.  Matthew 27:31-32 JESUS IS MOCKED, LED TO GOLGOTHA AND CRUCIFIED
36.  Luke 23:27-32
37.  Matthew 27:33-34
38.  Mark 15:25,27-28
39.  John 19:19-22 SUPERSCRIPTION 'THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS'
40.  Luke 23:34a FATHER FORGIVE THEM
41.  John 19:23-24 SOLDIERS CAST LOTS FOR HIS GARMENTS
42.  Matthew 27:39-43 FURTHER MOCKING BY THE PEOPLE
43.  Luke 23:39-43 WORDS WITH THE THIEF; 'BE WITH ME IN PARADISE'
44.  John 19:25-27 JESUS SPEAKS TO HIS MOTHER 'BEHOLD'

THE SIXTH HOUR  (APPROXIMATELY 12 NOON)

45.  Mark 15:33 DARKNESS FROM THE 6TH TO THE 9TH HOUR (noon to 3)

THE NINTH HOUR (APPROXIMATELY 3 PM)

46.  Mark 15:34-35 FINAL WORDS AND DEATH OF JESUS
47.  John 19:28-30
48.  Luke 23:46 FATHER INTO THY HANDS
49.  Matthew 27:51 VEIL OF THE TEMPLE RENT
50.  Matthew 27:54 TESTIMONY OF WITNESSES
51.  Luke 23:47-49
52.  Matthew 27:55-56
53.  (Mark 15:41)
54.  John 19:31-37 JESUS SIDE IS PIERCED
55.  Mark 15:42 THE BURIAL OF JESUS
56.  Luke 23:50-52
57.  Mark 15:44-45
58.  John 19:39-41
59.  Matthew 27:60
60.  Luke 23:54-56

SATURDAY, 15 NISAN

61.  Matthew 27:62-66
 


 

Sources: LDS Bible Dictionary
The Mortal Messiah, by Bruce R. McConkie
Hebrew Calendar Conversion v2.1, Panda Systems
* Today we reckon time by the Gregorian Calendar but in the time of Christ there was only 2 days difference between the Gregorian and the Julian Calendars. Today there are 14 days difference.

SOURCE:  http://www.ida.net/users/rdk/ces/Last_week_calendar.html

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